Infrastructure of Kosovo


Road Infrastructure - The territory of Kosovo has a road infrastructure suitable for the conduct of various business activities. The road network consists of 630 km of main roads. The country's road infrastructure is well developed. There is a fully developed road network, generally the roads are in very good condition. Many major roads connect Kosovo's major cities. The Ministry of Infrastructure is responsible for the maintenance of national and regional roads and the Municipality is responsible for local roads. With the construction of the highway with Albania, Kosovo is an important point of connection of Western Europe with the Adriatic Sea. Railway Infrastructure - Kosovo has a 330km railway system covering the entire territory of Kosovo connecting the north with the south and east with the west. In addition to transporting passengers for private and official purposes, the Railway System also provides the transport of various goods for business purposes, in and out of Kosovo. Such transport is carried out not only by rail but also in combination with other types of transport. Kosovo Railways enables the construction of private industrial rails from railway lines to the client's site. The main responsible for freight transport across the Kosovo Railways is the Commercial Railway Division of Kosovo. Air Infrastructure - Kosovo owns a single airport, Adem Jashari Airport, which is one of the most frequented airports in the region. This airport offers flights to the most important European centers but also to America. As with other transports, air transport besides passenger transport also carries various goods (cargo) for business purposes. Prishtina Airport offers a fast, effective and professional cargo transportation service. The airport examines each cargo through the rails - X. Depending on the weight of the cargo, the fees also vary. Prishtina Airport provides convenient conditions for the transport of goods requiring special handling, possessing refrigerators for storing goods. It also has all the equipment for loading and unloading of goods. Upon arrival of the goods, each carrier must withdraw within 24 hours, otherwise have to pay extra.

Hydrology


In Kosovo, there are many rivers flowing in the direction of the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. The main rivers of Kosovo are the White Drin (in southern Kosovo - flows into the Adriatic Sea), the Ibar River (in the north western, flows into the Morava and Danube River and further into the Black Sea), the Lepence River (in the south eastern part flows into the Vardar River and the Aegean Sea). It is very interesting that the Black Sea is drained by water from an area of ​​5500 km² catchment area, or 51% of the territory of Kosovo, the Adriatic Sea is drained by an area of ​​4500 km² or 43% and the Aegean Sea is drained an area of ​​only 900 km² or 6%. The watersheds of the three main drains (Drini i Bardhe, Ibar and Lepenica River) meet each other approximately 16.5 km west of Ferizaj, in the cadastral zone of Buda Kova (Municipality of Suhareka). At this point the contact of the three watersheds is Mount Drmanska at 1,359 m above sea level. From this point, the water surface flows in the direction of the Adriatic Sea, Black Sea or Aegean Sea. Other important rivers in Kosovo are: Sitnica River, Bisneca Morava, Peja Bistrica and Decani Bistrica. Kosovo also has a large number of karstic springs, thermal and mineral water springs, glacial valleys and natural and artificial lakes.  

Climatic conditions


Kosovo's climate is largely continental, resulting in warm summers and cold winters with Mediterranean and Alpine influences (average temperatures in the country range from + 30 ° C (summer) to - 10 ° C (winter)). However, due to uneven elevations in some parts of the country, there are changes in temperature and rainfall distribution. December and January are considered the coldest months. July and August, as the warmest months of the year. The maximum amount of rainfall was reached between October and December. Between November and March, snowfall in Kosovo can occur, even in the flat parts of the country. The largest amount of rainfall can fall in the mountainous regions of Kosovo. The valley between Mitrovica and Kacanik belongs to the driest area of ​​the country. In contrast, the Dukagjini plain between Peja and Prizren is described as a very fertile area with more rainfall between November and March. Based on climate conditions, Kosovo can be divided into three climatic zones as follows: Climate Zone of Kosovo (Kosovo Plain), Climatic Zone of Dukagjini (Dukagjini Plain) and Climatic zone of mountains and forested areas. The climate zone of Kosovo (Kosovo Plain), which includes the Ibar valley is influenced by continental air mass. For this reason, in this part of the country the winters are colder with average temperatures above - 10 ° C, but sometimes below - 26 ° C. Summers are very hot, with an average temperature of 20 ° C, sometimes above 37 ° C. This area is characterized by a dry climate and a total annual rainfall of approximately 600 mm per year. The climate zone of Dukagjini (Dukagjini Plain), which includes the watershed of the Drini i Bardhe River, is heavily influenced by the hot air masses that cross the Adriatic Sea. Average winter temperatures range from 0.5 ° C to 22.8 ° C. The average annual rainfall of this climate zone is 700 mm per year. Winter is characterized by heavy snowfall.

Geographical position of Kosovo


Kosovo extents in south-eastern Europe, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. In the south-west it borders with Albania, in the north-west with Montenegro, in the north with Serbia, and in the east and south-west with Macedonia. The territory extents within latitude 41 ° 50 '58' and 43 ° 15 '42' 'and latitude 20 ° 01' 30 'and 21 ° 48' 02 '' Kosovo occupies an area of ​​approximately 10,900 km² and is characterized by an average altitude of 800 m above sea level, showing vertical variations in terrain and morphology. These morphological changes are due to geological construction. The lowest point of Kosovo is located in the Drini i Bardhe river valley, on the border with Albania and reaches 297 m above sea level. The highest point is in the south of Kosovo - in Gjeravicë - 2 565 m high.

Student demonstration in 1981


The student demonstrations of 1981 and the following are the result of the continuous resistance of the Kosovo Albanian people against Serbian rule. On March 4, 1981, Kosovo students organized a protest in Pristina for better conditions in their canteen. The protest was the spark of a student-led demonstration on March 11, which, like the first protest, was violently suppressed by police and detained some students. Thus began the chain of demonstrations of '81. As a result of the student demonstrations came rallies known as "Workers' Demonstrations" demanding the release of imprisoned students. But again, state bodies intervene with all their brutality during the rallies, and the Yugoslav army presents its presence. After two months in the territory of the "Socialist Province of Kosovo" is placed "State of Emergency" and later the curfew. This chain continues until the beginning of the war in Kosovo. The popular demonstrations of March and April of the year marked the decisive turning point in the definitive division of Albanians held captive by the former SFRY. The popular uprising of March and April of 1981 marks a decisive era in the recent history of the Albanian people. In the demonstrations of 1981, for the first time, Kosovo was demanded to be a Republic. This slogan was the main motto at the time. Source: https://zeri.info/aktuale/23270/34-vjet-nga-demonstratat-e-studenteve/

Ottoman occupation


The beginning of the Ottoman occupation in Kosovo Attacks by the Ottoman military to strengthen the Albanian lands began in the mid 80's. XIV. Led by the Rumelian Beylerbe, Timurtash Pasha, in 1385 the Ottoman armies entered Albania and invaded the cities of Stip, Prilep, Monastery and Kastoria. In Western and Ottoman documents of the century. XIV-XV for the cities of Skopje, Bitola, Kastoria, Ioannina, etc., as well as for Fushe-Dardania It is stated that they may be "in Albania" or "in Albanian lands". In 1386 the Ottomans invaded Nis. The beginnings of the spread of Islam                                                                                                                                                                                                     In the absence of an Albanian national church, which would greatly affect the preservation of religious unity among Albanians, a considerable part of the nobility and other strata living in Skopje, Bitola and other cities in Kosovo began to massively embrace Islam. Since the late 60's XV over 60% of the inhabitants of Skopje and Bitola were Muslims. But the Slavs, which had their own national church, did not spread the process of Islamization. In the Ottoman cadastral records of the century. XV almost no spahi has the designation that it is a Shea or a Slav, unlike many others bearing the surname Albanian (Arnaut). The conversion to Islam of the Albanians severed many of them from the influence of the Slavic and Greek Orthodox churches (which held the liturgy in both Slavic and Greek), thus interrupting the momentum of the centuries-long process of Slavization and Greekization of Albanians. Islamization also enabled the Albanians to integrate into the life of the Ottoman Empire and to maintain, to some extent, their economic and political positions. Resistance to Ottoman occupation While the Ottoman occupator lay in the Albanian lands, a part of the nobility, the intention was to preserve the possessions by becoming sultan's vassals. However, in 1443, Gjergj Kastrioti - Skanderbeg (son of John Kastriot), defeated by his older brother Stanisha, took over the castle of Kruja and thus began the previous uprising, which is later today. Albanians. Skanderbeg also took control of the mountainous region south of Skopje and thus Skopje-Kicevo.Skanderbeg also took control of the mountainous region south of Skopje and thus Skopje-Kicevo. After Skanderbeg's death in 1468, the Albanian state continued its resistance. But in 1479, all Albanian lands fell under Ottoman rule. Kosovo under Ottoman Empire XV - XVIII century The expansion of the Ottoman Empire makes it possible to change its state organization. To look at this more solid basis for the administration of law, during the reign of Sultan Suleyman II (1520-1566), a new service organization was conducted and the laws created by other ordinances generally revised and appreciated today, with the aim of the centralization of power in the hands of the sultan was achieved in the first place. At the conclusion of this reorganization, the territory of the whole empire was divided into 32 districts, which may be smaller for the administration. At the top of every line is a beaver. The provinces of the Balkan Peninsula were implemented in three islands: the Bosnian one in the north of the peninsula, the Rumelian one in the center and the Sea one in the islands of the Aegean Sea and one in the southern coast. Each eel was divided into a number of sandwiches. The Albanian territories have become part of Rumelia's eagle. They were divided into several sandwiches. The number, extent and designation of the tires has changed from time to time here. Sando Sandzak is an Administrative and Military unity that exercises timers, wheels and reconfigurable military tire forces. Sandwiches were divided into smaller units, to show they were called kazas, the service of this service was divided into nahiyes. In general, the sandzak is a vice of the sandzakbei (myteselim) and the commander of the spahin (alay-bej), an experience in every phase a quality (kadi) directly dependent on the sultan. The opportunity for even more functionaries to pay less attention if they could smell it. The vast majority of officials, as well as most feudal lords, were of Albanian origin.    

Origin of Kosovo


The land inhabited by Albanians today, including today's territory of Kosovo, began to be populated very early, in the Paleolithic era, over 100,000 years ago. A large number of settlements are known such as in the present-day territory of Kosovo, such as the Radac and Karamakaz caves, as well as other smaller caves. Population of the present-day territory of Kosovo greatly increased in the Neolithic period. Illyrians are among the most ancient inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula. They are indigenous. The Illyrian culture, language, and anthropological traits formed in their country, in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, where ancient writers mention them in their works. The areas of expansion of the Illyrian population are quite extensive; they cover the whole of the western part of the peninsula, to the north, to the bay of Ambrakia (Preveza), to the south, and to the east to the lands around Lake Lyhind (Lake Ohrid). Special Illyrian groups also settled in southern Italy. These are the Mesape and Japanese tribes. The ethnic name ILIR appears in ancient works as early as the 21st century. V.p.K., and the names of some Illyrian tribes commemorate as early as the century. XII p.K. by Homer. But the time of the formation of the Illyrian ethnos is very ancient. The beginnings of Illyrian origin are from the middle of the second millennium BC, from the middle Bronze Age, when ethnic Illyrian traits began to form. The Dardanians were the largest Illyrian tribe to head the Dardanian Kingdom, in the central Balkans, mainly in Kosovo. In ancient times, Kosovo began to be known as Dardan (a word derived from the Albanian pear for the tree spread in the Dardanian territories). and was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Dardanians. The most important city of the Dardanians has been Damastion, known as the center of metal extraction. The Dardanians are noted as strong warriors, very good miners, livestock and well-known traders. The major cities included Damastion, Nis, Skopje, and Ulpiana. The Dardanian kings, the most popular of which were Longari, Monun and Bato, fought wars against Ancient Macedonia and reaped great victories. Dardania was occupied by Rome at the end of the century. I p. K. and gave the Roman Empire some of the most prominent emperors, including Constantine the Great. Christianity spread in the country in its infancy, with individuals such as Niket Dardan writing the first church hymns. Then, during the barbaric invasions of the middle century. In V and VIII, Dardania became a safe haven for the preservation of Illyrian culture and language as well as the heritage of the Romanized population, remaining part of the Eastern Roman Empire otherwise known by the Byzantine name.  

War in Kosovo 1998-1999


The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that began on 28 February 1998, following the Yugoslav attack on the villages of Likoshan and Qirez in Drenica, Kosovo, until 11 June 1999. The war was fought between the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (at the time, the Confederation of Serbia and Montenegro) and the Kosovo Liberation Army, with NATO air assistance (from 24 March 1999) and ground support from the Albanian Army. In this war 800,000 Albanians were expelled from their territories, 15,000 were killed, 2,400 of whom were ULAK fighters and the rest were civilians. About 5,000 people perished during the war, the fate of most of them fading by 2007, but the number of unexplained cases remains high. The liberation of Kosovo was aided by the UCC with the help of NATO, and ground support by the Albanian Army. On March 23, 1999 at 11:17 pm, NATO Secretary General Javier Solana announced that he had commissioned the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, US Army General Wesley Clark, to "begin air operations in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia". NATO had begun a bombing campaign against Yugoslavia on March 24 at 8pm. In over ten weeks of conflict, NATO aircraft flew over 38,000 combat missions, and with the exception of Greece, all NATO members were involved. The Rambouillet Conference was held during January-March 1999. The massive attack on Jashari's house had led to the massacre of 60 Albanians, mostly of the Adem Jashari family, 18 of whom were women and 10 children. On 15 January 1999 the Recak Massacre took place, where 45 Albanian farmers were besieged, then taken to a hill and massacred. The massacre was punished by Western nations and the United Nations Security Council and later became the basis of one of the war crimes charges against Milosevic and his top officials. On June 12, the mission led by the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) had begun to enter Kosovo, with its only mission being peacekeeping.  

The road to independence


Kosovo's declaration of independence and its international recognition in Pristina are considered the most important date in Kosovo's history. The efforts of Kosovars and the majority population for freedom date back a century, while efforts to create an independent state date back a long time. Despite the repression, on 2 July 1990, the Assembly of Kosovo issued a constitutional declaration defining Kosovo as a Republic. The deputy chairman of the then Assembly of Kosovo, Iljaz Ramajli, says that the declaration of independence was followed by the proclamation of the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo on September 7, 1990 in Kacanik. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, Kosovo also organized a referendum on independence and sovereignty, held in September 1991. From that moment on, a parallel organization system was installed in Kosovo, following elections held outside the Serbian legal system, in which Rugova was elected president. The Republic of Kosovo forms the government in exile, led by Prime Minister Bujar Bukoshi. But this republic and this government did not enjoy international recognition, despite massive support in Kosovo. The peaceful politics of Rugova and the LDK began to be criticized from 1995 onwards. Especially after the 1995 Dayton Conference, when the cease-fire agreement was reached in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo was sidelined, military guerrilla groups were formed in Kosovo, which in 1997 would result in the Army's public appearance. Release of Kosovo. From March 24 to June 10, respectively, June 12, 1999, Kosovo's new history begins. NATO is at war bombing Serbian military targets until the liberation of Kosovo. But during this time, the Albanian population experienced one of the most difficult stages, faced with brutal violence by Serbian forces. On September 28, 2005, at the request of internationals and with the approval of President Rugova, the Kosovo Assembly formed the Status Negotiation Team. It was President Rugova who repeatedly demanded that Kosovo be recognized as an independent state by the United States and other European countries, believing that Kosovo and Serbia could never find an agreement between them. On February 17, 2008, the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo promulgated the Kosovo Declaration of Independence. At a meeting attended by 109 of the 120 deputies, the Kosovo Assembly unanimously declared Kosovo an independent, sovereign and democratic state.  

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