Ulpiana Archaeological Park


Ulpiana is a cultural heritage monument in Gracanica, Kosovo, a Roman city founded at the beginning of the II century by Emperor Trajan. Archaeological excavations have given traces of pre-Roman life, and Ulpiana is an Illyrian city. Ulpiana was an important place for the Dardanian Kingdom. The town was located near the current Lipjan town in Kosovo.

Albanian League of Prizren


On June 10, 1878 the Prizren Assembly was convened, which announced the formation of the Prizren League. The works of this assembly were led by Iljaz Pasha Dibra, while the political program was drafted by the ideologues of the Albanian nation such as Sami Frashëri, Pashko Vasa, Abdyl Frashëri, Jani Vreto, Zija Prishtina and others. The Prizren League is the first political and military organization of the entire Albanian nation. The Prizren League had to solve three major tasks that were of concern to all Albanians. First, to oppose the segregation of ethnic Albanian lands inhabited by the Treaty of St Stephen and the Congress of Berlin in 1878. Second, to unite the Albanian territories into a single vilayet within the Ottoman Empire. Third, to testify throughout European public opinion that Albanians were a separate nation in the Balkans despite religious differences. The highest body of the Prizren League was the General Council, which carried out legislative functions. This body created a National Committee which took on the attributes of an interim government. The National Committee was composed of three committees: Abdyl Frashëri was assigned to Foreign Affairs, Shaban Prizren was assigned to Internal Affairs, and Sulejman Vokshi to Finance. The National Committee set up provincial subcommittees in the three main Albanian vilayets that were in danger of falling apart. The Prizren League subcommittee on the Ioannina vilayet and senior Ottoman state official Abedin Pasha Dino, with deft diplomatic actions, prevented Greece from annexing the province of Chameria. The Shkodra subcommittee organized Albanian volunteer troops under the leadership of Ali Pasha Gucia and Hodo beg Sokoli, who caused heavy losses to Montenegrin forces led by Mark Milan. Albanians managed to protect Plava, Gucia, Hoti and Gruda with blood. Rejoicing over the achievements, the Albanians expressed their determination not to leave the city of Ulcinj. Under pressure from the International Fleet of Great Powers and surrounded by Ottoman and Montenegrin troops, Ottoman Commander Dervish Pasha finally broke the Albanian resistance and on November 26, 1880, Ulcinj surrendered to Montenegrin forces. The Albanian resistance against the High Gate continued afterwards. In May 1881 after a number of arrests of its leaders and persecution of the Albanian population, the League of Prizren, was crushed by the High Gate.

Imperial Mosque


This mosque was built in 1460-1461 by Sultan Mehmet II al-Fatih (as evidenced by the carving of the wall over the main mosque door), just eight years after the fall of Constantinople. Located in the heart of the old city center, it is Pristina's largest and most prominent mosque. Its dome was once the largest in the region, and today it is the only mosque built by Sultan Mehmet II that still survives in these areas. The square in front of the King's Mosque has always been a popular meeting place. During the years 1682-83, under the rule of Sultan Mehmet IV, the mosque was restored, and its minaret was repaired again after the 1955 earthquake. Since 1953 this mosque is called: The Mosque of Sultan Mehmet II al-Fatih.

Old stone bridge in Prizren


Through Prizren crosses the Lumbardhi River, which divides the city into two equal parts. Over the Lumbardhi of Prizren, in the course of history, many bridges were erected but undoubtedly the most special that became a symbol of the city is the Stone Bridge. The Stone Bridge is located in the center of the Old Town. On the east side there is the bridge of "Arasta", on the west side is the bridge of "Naleti". The bridge connects directly to Shatravan Square (on the left side of the river) and Saracana (to the right of the river). Historical sources do not provide data on the exact time of its construction. On the basis of material, style, construction technique, it is assumed that the bridge was built towards the end of the XV century, or at the beginning of the XVI century. The old bridge is constructed of quality stones processed and bound together with limestone. The old bridge was tri-square, the middle arch was larger, and the lateral arches smaller. The length of the former bridge was approximately 30m, while the current bridge is 17m. The length of the large arch is 10m, the height 5m. Side arches 4m long, 3m high. The bridge also has a small auxiliary bow 103cm long and 160cm high. The track width is 4.20m and is paved with cobblestones. The bridge has a 40cm fence that follows its leveling and served only for pedestrians. In the course of history, the bridge has undergone some major changes. It suffered serious structural damage during the construction of the Lumbardhi bed in the 1960s. On this occasion, its arch, completely to the left of the river, completely closes. However, the right-hand side of the bridge was damaged when the road was built on the right-hand side of the river in 1963. The greatest risk was due to natural factors. The flood of the river on 17/18 November 1979 caused the bridge to be completely destroyed. The Prizrenians eager to destroy the bridge were mobilized, and according to the project designed by M. Gojkovic, ing., On June 5, 1982, work on its reconstruction began. Restoration works were carried out by the Enterprise "Elan", under the supervision of the Cultural Monuments Protection Office of Prizren. The solemnly rebuilt bridge was inaugurated on November 17, 1982. Thus the bridge naturally comes into its own and continues to function as a pedestrian bridge. Taking into consideration the genuine values ​​of the heritage, the Stone Bridge by decision no. 2345 dated December 31, 1948 is placed under state protection.

Literary Creativity


The beginnings of Albanian literature in Kosovo are as early as the beginnings of Albanian literature in general. Pjeter Budi of Mati, who acted and created in Kosovo, with his prose writings and over 3,000 four-volume verses published in 1618-1622, after Gjon Buzuku's "Meshari" (1555), marks the first important author of this literature. In fact he was referring to the writings of Pal Has from the Prizren District before him, but that has not been preserved. Pjeter Bogdani, also from Has, with his work Cuneus Prophetarum (1685) marks the most accomplished point of Albanian literature of Sh. XVI-XVIII, while this tradition in Kosovo was followed by Gjon Nikolla Kazazi (1643). In the nineteenth century was well-known in Arabic writing and with a strong oriental influence. Tahir Efendi Bosniak is especially known for his 1835 Vehbije work, later Sheh Hilmi Maliqi, or later authors already in the mainstream of Albanian literature. XIX as Ndue Bytyci, Shtjefen Gjenovi and others. Concerning Albanian literature in Kosovo, two issues appear unclear: the first, what is the space within which its time frame extends; and, second, what is the space that constitutes it. The few studies that have labeled this literature as an arm of Albanian literature, or the literary district of Kosovo, place it in the second part of sh. XX, respectively after World War II. Thus, its beginnings relate to the first literary writings of the 1950s, which sounds like a start from nothing. Such treatment of this part of Albanian literature seems mechanical and not very reliable. The first constellation of Kosovar writers, who fill the creative space in the late 1950s and early 1960s, proves the opposite: besides supporting oral Albanian literature, they also had the support of written literature, especially tradition. of the Renaissance. The second issue is probably easier to explain. These are Albanian authors, which are mainly based in Prishtina, but are of Kosovo origin or residence. There are dozens of names, for example, from Macedonia, whose works have been published in Kosovo and have been part of its literary environment and atmosphere.

Art and Architecture


Architecture as part of the articulation of tradition and ideas in Kosovo is expressed through the construction of various objects such as special spiritual ones but also other objects, ranging from residential buildings known as towers, hospices to public or government buildings. , as well as the urban forms of medieval cities such as forts and to this day. Towers as residential buildings are traditional family buildings on the basis of which further secular buildings and clock towers were designed and constructed. Other forms were designed and put into service for other purposes and when they were systematized and an infrastructure network was created between them they created forts. Among the most organized settlements in the Middle Ages is the famous Prizren Castle. The towers as auxiliary objects, first as observation and signaling, and later as gathering objects for the inhabitants of the suburbs up to the religious objects of our day, are not rare in Kosovo. It is said that towers as religious objects, that is to say with roofs according to religious symbols, are among the oldest in the Balkans. A large number of them are under the care of the Serbian Orthodox Church, with some remaining religious rites. Among the tallest and most popular towers, built according to traditional features but using modern materials, concrete and glass, is the "Renaissance" Tower. A tower surrounded by a new complex of buildings. Churches and mosques, like religiously adorned stone towers, are widespread throughout Kosovo. While the number of such churches has been kept constant for more than a century, this cannot be said about the number of mosques. Historical developments have taken their toll and today the construction of mosques with new materials dominates today. Resorts(Han), a type of facility that accommodates travelers similar to the motels and hotels of our time. Their outreach was largely in and around urban centers. A number of them, in the Dukagjini Plain, have been maintained complete or fragments of them that have been adopted and mainly conduct gastronomy activities. The hammam, a kind of facility that served as a public bathroom of the Ottoman empire, was also widespread in Kosovo in urban centers at the time. Whole hammams, or fragments of them, are still in operation today, or maintained. So far, some of them have been described in this encyclopedia. Among them are the Haji Bey's Hamam in Peja. The castle as the earliest form of urbanization that for various reasons of history was left unoccupied with the surrounding objects, seems to exist in Kosovo, but archaeological traces are still in their infancy. As a result of this phase it has been made public the discovery of a Roman-era Castle, Harilaq Castle, 25 kilometers west of Pristina. Fortresses besides the Prizren Fortress, fragments of which also provide the casual observer with the walls of the Fortress, fragments of the Pogragja Fortress and the Ogurzese Fortress, also known as Mitrovica Fortress, have been found. Other interesting objects in their interior, but not visible to the occasional bystander, are shrines(tyrbe), a kind of building on the tomb of predominantly spiritual persons, but which also have nothing to do with the religious side of society. Houses and other characteristic objects of the late Ottoman Empire are completely preserved or such fragments, mainly in the seven urban centers. These objects for are characterized by building material. These include the use of onions as building tools. Objects of the Austro-Hungarian era are still scarce and mainly in centers such as Prishtina, Mitrovica and Peja. Among them are the buildings near the building of the National Theater in Prishtina and the hotel Metohia in Peja. Communist-style objects are the most common objects. This is due to the post-World War II system. Such facilities are mainly of concrete, with defective decorations, and mainly built for the purpose of applicability. During this time there was another form of expression of art through "Lapidars", "Memorials" "Statues", "Busts" dedicated to warriors and prominent figures of the communist system, among which dominated the figure of Tito, figures of national rebirth Albanians near school facilities besides communist ones. Among such popular objects are the Memorial of the Brotherhood of Pristina, the Lapidar of "Boro Ramiz" in Landrovica. The objects of the last "post-war" style, are mainly objects not as high as in the communist style, the average height of the tall objects reaches 5-6 storeys. The media propagates the construction of tall towers with surrounding buildings that form entirely modern castles which also serve as dwellings, shelters but primarily as finance office sites around which commercial buildings are spread. Be that as it may, there is no talk of an awakening of the art of construction in spite of numerous constructions. On the other hand, the erection of communist-style monuments has become part of the tradition. This tradition seems to have replaced the role of the shrines(tyrbe).

Cultural heritage


In Kosovo, there is a rich cultural life with numerous activities, organizations and events of local, national and international character. In addition to the development and development of cultural policies in the country, there is also a promotion and cultural dialogue in order to penetrate our culture internationally not only as a participation but also as a competition. The Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports, namely the Department of Culture, is responsible for the development of program policies for the development of cultural values ​​in the country. Policies that are designed and implemented are at the service of cultural institutions and for their promotion at the artistic and cultural level, and on the other hand narrowing the circle of non-values ​​of every profile in our cultural life. The Department of Culture aims to achieve its mission through the following objectives: Institutional support / support of culture, of the Division of Stage-Musical and Visual Arts; Supporting independent culture, as well as promoting cultural diplomacy, in the Division of Promotion and Book and library support, in the Book and Libraries Division. The Division of Stage-Music and Visual Arts covers the areas of Stage Arts (Theaters), Stage (Music), Visual Arts, Cinematography and Gallery "Neck" of MCYS. Cultural Institutions under the umbrella of the Department of Culture , especially of this division are: National Theater of Kosovo; Philharmonic-Opera of Kosovo; Kosovo Ballet; KKV Ensemble "Shota"; Kosovo Art Gallery; Kosovo Cinema Center and Kosovafilm. National Library of Kosovo The Division of Cultural Promotion is located in the formulation and implementation of policies and support in the area of ​​promotion, diversity and cultural dialogue / minorities, the creative industry and cultural diplomacy. The Division of Book and Library which aims to support and stimulate the creativity, presence and circulation of the book, covers areas of publishing, book meetings and fairs, libraries, the International Seminar of Albanian Language, Literature and Culture, the Book Council as and licensing publishers.

Religion


Freedom of belief is one of the fundamental human rights. Therefore, in Kosovo, every citizen has every right to religious determination, including the freedom to have or not to have a religion, to maintain or change a religion, to manifest religion publicly or privately. This is protected by law from state bodies. The population of Kosovo in terms of religion is divided into three main beliefs: Muslim Catholic Orthodox The majority of the population belongs to the Muslim faith while a small proportion of the population belongs to the Catholic and Orthodox faith. Although there are no official statistics on the religious affiliation of the population, it is considered that approximately 90% of the population of Kosovo belongs to the Muslim faith, 6% to the Orthodox faith, 3% to the Catholic faith and 1% to the rest. Kosovo is rich in a large number of mosques but also the number of both Catholic and Orthodox churches is not small. Many of the mosques and churches in Kosovo represent monuments of great historical and cultural value and are protected by law. Religious communities have educational institutions for their needs organized in accordance with applicable law.  

Balkan civilization begins and rises with Albanians


Albanians are one of the oldest and indigenous peoples of the Balkans. Known by many names as "Illyrian", "Albanian", "Arbëreshë", "Albanian", the Albanian people are among the founders of civilization on the Peninsula and among the most authentic contributors to the culture and civilization of the European Continent. Great world and Albanian historians and scholars such as Thuman, Hahn, Shuflai, Stipcevic, Hosch, Cabej, Buddha, Zheliskova have proved with their historical and linguistic studies the indigenous, authentic and contribution of Albanians in this Region of more than three thousand and more. five hundred years. (3500 years). The ancient Albanians stretched across the main part of the Balkans, from the North of the Adriatic Sea down to the South of the Ionian Sea, from the West Coast to the East in the Danube Valley. This area constituted a rich, rugged and highly fragmented terrain, leaving traces of Albanian settlements, culture, and integration throughout the centuries. Although there are many theses and hypotheses for the origin of Albanians in this region, what dominates the historical, archaeological and linguistic sciences is the widely accepted and internationally accepted thesis, based on material and written data, which acknowledges that Albanians live in the their ancestral lands and are an indigenous continuation of their ancestors, the Illyrians. Recognizing and studying the history of Albanians is considered a prerequisite for the recognition and study of the entire Balkans, peoples and their history. The civilization of the Balkans and its peoples begins with the Albanians. Source: https://www.botasot.info/opinione/587581/me-shqiptaret-nise-dhe-ngrihet-civilizimi-i-ballkanit/  

Economy in Kosovo


The main branch of the economy in Kosovo was initially industry (agriculture and forestry, mining and energy) and production that made a smaller contribution to increasing wealth. About 30% of GDP came from remittances (mainly from Germany and Switzerland), accounting for 20% of Kosovo's population before the 1999 civil war. Over 65% of the population resident in Kosovo is employed in the agricultural sector. Previously Kosovo has been a very negative trade balance in this sector. Food products are already the largest segment of imports, accounting for 30% of total imports. Apart from the use of lignite by energy suppliers, the Kosovo Energy Company (KEK) and the extraction of construction materials, the official mining sector has remained frozen since the NATO intervention in 1999 and there are no active mining operations yet. Plastic and wood materials account for 34% of exports, followed by metals (31%), which are almost exclusively derived from scrap. The energy sector has been affected by a lack of investment to replace the old Eastern Bloc equipment. There are two power plants (TPPs) operating there and these also need renovation. 50% of all electricity produced by KEK is lost due to technical problems or non-payment by customers, so the company receives only 40% of sufficient energy to serve the home market, but power outages condition the termination of electricity supply by import. Kosovo's minerals sector has been a major supplier to the economy at one time. Yugoslavia. Kosovo's geology is diverse and as a result a wide range of minerals has been discovered, which are already in exploitable quantities. These include lignite, lead - zinc, silver, nickel, chromium, aluminum, magnesium with different types of building materials. Poor management and poor investment and political developments in the former. Yugoslavia, brought about by NATO intervention, has had a dramatic negative effect on Kosovo's mining industry and the amount of metals produced throughout the region. This underscores the great role Kosovo has played in the former economy. Yugoslavia as a supplier of cleaners.

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